Runoff is the flow of water that occurs when excess water flows over the earth's surface. This happens when the soil is saturated to its full capacity and water inflow is faster than the soil's ability to absorb it. Surface runoff is a major component of irrigation water loses. It is also the primary agent in soil erosion by water.


Percolation is the flow of water down the ground that is driven by gravity. This occurs mainly in granular soils with low capacity to hold water, such as sandy desert soil. Percolation, depending on soil type, can reach up to 85% of total irrigation loses. It is also the preliminary agent in soil nutrients wash out.


Evaporation is the vaporisation process of a liquid that occurs from the surface of the liquid into a gaseous phase. The evaporation losses during an irrigation process can occur either in the air or on the earth’s surface. Evaporation losses can be eliminated to negligent levels (less than 1%) by the latest sub-surface irrigation technologies.

How does
the Moistube works?

Moistube™ is a slow release, sub-surface irrigation system. It is based on a unique nano-technology which significantly reduces water use. The irrigation process reduces plant stress to a minimum via constant water release; 24 hrs a day, 7 days a week. On average there is approximately a 20% increase in crop and biomass production while reducing water consumption by up to 75%.

Moistube™ releases water through nano-holes at a rate determined by an applied pressure in the system. The method allows for easy water release adjustments, simply by changing the pressure in the network. Within soil, Moistube™ creates an even and constant underground wet zone where plant roots have easy access to water and nutrients.

The nano-porous Moistube™ material utilises natural capillary processes. The process enables Moistube™ to release a sufficient amount of water for when the soil is dry and reduces once the soil is saturated.